Friday, December 31, 2010

Emergence of new media

The wider kinds of social and cultural change were being identified and described and had been, to varying degrees, from the 1960s onwards. The following are indicative of wider kinds of social, economic and cultural change with which new media are associated:

(i)                 A shift from modernity to post modernity - a contested, but widely subscribed attempt to characterize deep and structural changes in societies from the 1960s onwards, with correlative cultural changes. In terms of their aesthetics and economies new media are usually seen as a key marker of such changes.

(ii)               Intensifying process of globalization -  a dissolving of national states and
                  boundaries in terms of trade, corporate organizations, cultures and customs,
                  identities and beliefs.  

(iii)             A replacement, in the West, of an industrial age of manufacturing by a ‘post-industrial’ information age – a shift in employment, skill, investment and profit, in the production of  material goods to service and information
                  ‘industries’ which many uses of new media are seen to epitomize.

(iv)             A decentring of established and centralized geopolitical orders: the weakening of mechanisms of power and control from Western colonial centres, facilitated by the dispersed, boundary-transgressing, networks of new communication media.

New media were caught up and seen as part of these other kinds of change, and the sense of ‘new times’ and ‘new eras’ which followed in their wake. In this sense, the emergence of ‘new media’ as some kind of epoch-making phenomena, was, and still is, seen as part of a much larger landscape of social, technological and change, in short, as part of a new techno culture.

Indian perspective : Digital Revolution in India

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

What is not Public Relations...

Sometimes Public Relations is taken wrongly by few organisations/companies. Many times we have seen that organisations use this tool for misguiding people. Public Relations is not:  

  1. A barrier between truth and publics

  1. Propaganda to impose a view point regardless of truth, ethics and public good.

  1. Free publicity to achieve sale – though PR helps in sales and marketing effort.

  1. Gimmicks for quick acceptance of idea, but fail to bring about desired change in understanding and credibility.

  1. Unpaid form of Advertising

  1. Mere press relations, though press work is important for most PR programs.

   7. Moulding public opinion

   8. Hiding the truth and betaing around the bush.

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Some public relations quotes...

Practice of Public Relations

# Definitions

(1) According to FORTUNE Magazine, good performance publicly appreciated because adequately communicated.

There are about 500 definitions of Public Relations.

(2) Public Relations is merely human decency which flows from a good heart
By Charles Plackard        ard

(3) The purpose of Public Relations practice is to establish two way communications to resolve conflicts of interest and to establish understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information.
                                                                                                             -By Sam Black

(4) Public Relations is the top management function which gives the same organized and careful attention to the asset of goodwill as is given to any other major asset of business.
-          By John W Hill

(5) Public Relations is a combination of philosophy, sociology, economics, language, psychology, journalism, communication and other know ledges of a system of human understanding.
                                                                                                                        - By Herbert M. Bans
(6) Public Relations is an attempt by information, persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution.
 - By Edward L. Barnays

(7) Public Relation is the communication and interpretation and communication of ideas from an institution to its publics and the communication of information, ideas and opinions from those publics to the institution, in a sincere effort to establish a maturity of interest and thus achieve the harmonious adjustment of an institution to its community.
- By Cutlip & Center

(8) Public Relations is a distinctive top management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics, involves the management of problems or issues, help management to keep informed on and responsive to public opinion ; defines and emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the public interest, help management keep abreast of and effectively utilize change, serving as an early warning 
system to help anticipation trends and use research and sound and ethical communication as its principal tool.   
 - Based on 472 definitions by Dr. Rex Harlow

(9) Public Relations is 90% doing good and 10% talking about it. Public Relations cannot gloss over bad deeds to make them look good, but PR can help to get credit to the organization for job well done.
                                                                                                  - By Iqbal Sachdeva

To sum up all the definitions, Public Relations is a two way process of communication between an organization and target groups for three fold benefits:
(a)    To resolve conflicts of interest
(b)   By seeking common ground/area of mutual interest
(c)    In establishing understanding based on truth, knowledge and complete information.

This is the process, purpose and practice of Public Relations.


1. Blogs are the websites wherein users can express their views, opinions and beliefs about a particular event.

2. Blogs are part of history of communication and literature and are emblematic of shift from uni-directional media to participatory media.

3. According to the BBC, blog is a website written by an individual or group, typically using free and easy-to-use tools, consisting of periodic articles, normally in reverse chronological order.

4. The first blog apparently came up on 17th December, 1997. Blogging became popluar in about five years time, and in 2003, the word ‘blog’ entered the Oxford English Dictionary.

5. According to Oxford English Dictionay, blog is a personal record that anyone puts on their website giving an account and their opinions and discussing places on the internet they have visited. 

6. “Blog” was Merriam-Webster’s word of the year in 2004.  

7. Blogs are kind of online journals, which allow people to chare information.

8. Blogs are on internet landscape since late 1990’s, but have gained importance and popularity after 26/11 terrorist attacks in USA in 2001.

9. At that time, for people across the world, blogs became a place for pouring out their anguish and grief that followed tourist attacks.

10. Blogs help people to stay in touch with each other. Relatives living in far lands can get to know about their people and their activities through videos, texts and pictures posted on blog posts.

11. Blogs have become important tools in the hands of those who want to be heard. Common people who want to raise their voice and express their opinions have found a way through blogs.
12. Blogs act as gatekeepers for traditional media and government (local and national). Any information which mainline media has buried (due to political pressure)blogs help to unearth the news and keep a tab on media for authenticity of information. Also, in many cases blogs can help reporters to get additional information or correct the information.

13. Blogs have emerged as the best application of web 2.0.

14. From common people to celebrities, today almost everyone who is technology savvy is expressing himself/herself through blogs. Celebrities like Amitabh Bachhan, Shobha De, Chetan Bhagat, Shane Warne – all have their dedicated blogs which they update regularly.

15. Some people write about their personal experiences, while there are others who express their views on important events taking place across the globe.

16. For students, writing blogs is a best way in which they can channelize their opinions and help in improving their writing and analytical skills.

17. These days many recruiting agencies and companies have started analyzing and appointing employees on basis of their views expressed in their blogs.

18. Blogs also help in scrutinizing the interesting content on web. Many bloggers publish the content on their blogs which they find interesting and want to share with friends and other people.

19. The most interesting and important fact about blogosphere is that they are not controlled by any media organization. Rather, it is controlled by individual who helps in keeping a check on traditional media.   
20. However, one cannot compare blogs with traditional journalism because there is no gatekeeping in blogs. The content in blogs are the perceptions and opinions of individuals, which may be misguiding.

21. Blogs encourages feedback and healthy discussion. It helps the users to reach niche audience, or can become members of online groups and communities.

22. Blogs have revolutionized the internet and now many people are hooking onto it in one form or another.

23. Twitter – micro blogging website is gaining popularity because one doesn’t have to write or read long texts. It keeps the art of blogging short and simple.  

24. There are different categories of blogs: personal blogs, technical blogs, travel blogs, cooking blogs, fashion blogs, art blogs etc. The categories on which bloggers write can be innumerous.

25. Free blogging websites: and

26. Blog aggregators: online dictionary for blogs.

27. All blogs are at one place and are sorted according to name, place and topic.

28. Blog aggregators help in generating traffic and new ideas.

29. Famous bloggers are Kevin Sites (, Amit Agarwal ( Inspiration), Amit Varma ( etc

Monday, December 27, 2010

Define new media...

Definition: New Media
‘New Media’ is a buzzword, shorthand for a volatile cultural and technology industry that includes multimedia, entertainment and e-commerce.  The unifying term ‘New Media’ refers to a wide range of changes in media production, distribution and use. These are changes that are technological, textual, conventional and cultural.

Since mid 1980’s a number of concepts have come to the fore which offer to define the key characteristics of the field of new media as a whole. Here are some of the terms in discourses about new media. These are: digital, interactive, hypertextual, virtual, networked and stimulated.   

The free internet based encyclopedia, Wikipedia, itself  a product of New Media, defines New Media as the product of mediated communication technologies coming together with digital computers.  Before the 1980s, the media relied mainly on print and analogue models like newspapers, television, cinema and radio. Now we have digital radio, television and cinema, while even the printing press has been transformed by new digital technologies such as image manipulation softwares like Adobe Photoshop and desktop publishing tools.

Some technologies we might therefore, include as or associate with New Media are:
  • The internet and World Wide Web
  • Digital Television
  • Digital Cinema
  • Personal Computers (PCs)
  • DVDs (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc)
  • CDs (Compact Discs)
  • Portable Media Players (such as the MP3 player)
  • Mobile phones
  • Video (or computer) games
  • Virtual Reality (VR)
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)

New Media might not be an ideal term for such a range of technologies, but it is one that is increasingly recognized internationally and one that is generally associated with the technological transformations in communication that have recently taken place.

At the heart of this cultural shift sits the Internet, the ultimate network of networks. With its roots in the 1950s and 1960s, our Internet is not especially new itself. What is new is this interconnected series of computer networks tied together by satellite, wireless, fibre optic cable and wire which has enabled the traditional model of mass communication to be radically altered.

In many ways, the recent growth of new media studies has coincided with that of the Internet, though of course it is by no means the only significant new media technology. Since the 1970s, when the first ‘personal computers’ were introduced and ‘APRANET’ was built as an elite channel for technical communication, the Internet has become a platform for commerce, sociality and popular culture.
Through keyword-driven Internet search engines like ‘Yahoo!’, ‘Lycos’, ‘Ask Jevees’, ‘Alta Vista’ and ‘Google’, millions of people worldwide now have instant and easy access to a vast and diverse amount of information online. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information.

Yet, while the Internet is usually identified with New Media, computers per se are not. Although, we could confidently argue that the Internet is a part of New Media, as the Internet itself changes so some critics argue that it is now also entering a new phase in its development, one that is distinctly different from its past.

The concept of Web 2.0 is distinct from Web 1.0 in that its websites allow users to do more than just retrieve information; it includes a social element where users generate and distribute content, with freedom to share and reuse. Examples of this would include social-networking websites (such as You tube, Myspace and Facebook), wikis (like WikiWikiWeb and Wikipedia) that allow users to create, edit and link web pages easily. 

Web 1.0                                               Web 2.0
Double click                à                    Google Adsense
Ofoto                          à                    Flickr
Britannica Online        à                    Wikipedia
Personal websites        à                    Blogging
Page views                  à                    cost per click
Publishing                   à                    participation
Today, the internet is different is terms of content, distribution, and usability than it was made open to public. We now have a new relationship that has increased participation, creativity and interactivity on the web as a whole.

History of New Media

New Media timeline...

  • The Z3 (one of Konrad Zuse’s electromechanical ‘Z machines’ is invented. It was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. It is therefore, regarded as one of the first computers.

  • The Harvard Mark 1 is invented. It is large scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.

  • The US Army’s Ballistics Research Laboratory ENIAC uses decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer

  • A forerunner of the video game, the ‘Cathode Ray tube Amusement Device’ was conceived by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann

  • Vacuum tube-based computers are sold commercially.

  • The Xerox machine is invented.

  • Integrated circuit invented enabling the further miniaturization of electronic devices and computers.

  • Intermetall unveils the first transistorized portable radio in the Düsseldorf Radio Fair.

  • The first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) is launched by Soviet Union

  • Explorer 1 becomes the USA’s first satellite.

  • Jack Kilby and Texas instruments received US patent for miniaturized electronic circuits.

  • Robert Noyce and the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation received US patent for a silicon-based integrated circuit.

  • First commercially available integrated circuits came from the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation. All computers then started to be made using chips instead of the individual transistors and their accompanying parts.

  • The satellite, Telstar, is launched by NASA

  • Xerox invents the Telecopier – the first successful fax machine.

  • Jack Kilby invents the portable calculator.

  • Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his student Bob Sproull, create what is widely considered to be the first virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) head mounted display (HMD) system.

  • APRANET is developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense. It was the world’s first operational packet switching network.

  • The Moon Landing – Apollo 11; Neil Armstrong walks on the moon.

Sony introduces the first videocassette, the three-quarter-inch U-matic one hour tape.

  • The computer floppy disc is invented.

  • The microphone is invented.

  • The micro-processor is invented – considered a computer on a chip.

  • ‘Computer Space’, the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game is launched.

  • John Blankenbaker builds the first personal computer, the Kenblak 1.  

  • HBO (Home Box Office) invents pay-TV service for cable.

  • The first video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, is launched and the video game, Pong is released. Noland Bushnell, its 28 year old inventor, goes on to found Atari.

  • Norway and England connect to APRANET, making the first international connection.

  • Xerox develops the Ethernet which will become the de facto standard for linking computers, printers and other hardware devices.

  • The Desktop computer is introduced by Hewlett-Packard.

  • Products with barcodes begin appearing in US stores.

  • Scanners at checkout counters are able to read the codes using laser technology.

  • Nam June Paik, a twentieth century South Korean born US video artist, claims to have coined the term ‘the information superhighway’, that is, a route or network for the high speed transfer of information.

  • Microsoft is founded by Bill Gates.

  • First hand-held mobile arrives.

  • First major ISP (Internet service provider) CompuServe Asper established.

  • Xerox sells SDS to Honeywell and withdraws from computer industry.

  • Apple home computer invented.

  • Commodore and Tandy begin selling PCs

  • North Star and Pertec introduce PCs with five-and-a-half-inch floppy discs.

  • Xerox releases the Xerox 9700 Electronic Printing System, the first xerographic laser printer product.

  • The video game Space Invaders is released.

  • Texas Instruments introduces Speak-and-Spell, an educational toy featuring digital speech synthesis.

  • Pioneer develop the LaserDisc that was first used by General Motors to train Cadillac salesman

  • First cellular phone communication network started in Japan.

  • Sony Walkman invented.

  • The number of computers in the USA exceeds one million. Microsoft DOS version 1.0 marketed.

  • The originator of the Internet, Tim Berners-Lee, writes the ‘Enquire Within’ program. ‘Enquire’ has some of the same ideas as the web but was not supposed to be released to the general public.

  • Intelpost - international electronic fax service established.

  • CNN – 24 hours news channel goes on air.

  • WordStar – is the first PC word processor.

  • Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet first compact discs

  • IBM PC first sold.

  • First laptop computers sold to public.

  • Computer mouse becomes a regular part of computer

  • First Nintendo home video game produced.

  • Jim Rutt, coins the term ‘snail mail’ to contrast traditional mail with e-mail.

  • Microsoft provides software for IBM PC. The company’s first international office is founded.

  • NASA introduces, Columbia, a reusable spacecraft.

  • Sky Channel (first European satellite television channel) launched.

  • Kodak Camera uses film on a disc cassette. Two hundred computers connected to the Internet worldwide.

  • Sony’s first compact disc player (CDP-101) introduced.

  • Time magazine names the computer as ‘Man of the Year’.

  • First cellular phone network started in the USA.

  • Number of computers in the USA exceeds ten million.

  • Mobile phone network starts in the USA.

  • Bruce Bethke’s short story ‘Cyberpunk’ is published.

  • Apple Macintosh 1 is released.

  • IBM PC AT is released.

  • William Gibson coins term ‘cyberspace’ is his novel ‘Neuromancer’.

  • The CD Walkman is launched.

  • The first PDA (personal digital assistant) – Psion Organiser, the first camcorder and the Apple Macintosh, IBM PC AT are marketed.

  • The silicon microchip is developed, storing four times more data than previously possible.

  • The Tandy 1000 PC becomes the number 1 selling IBM PC-compatible in its first year.

  • A computer hacker and DIY media organization called ‘Cult of the Dead Cow’ (also known as cDc or cDc Communications) publishes the first ‘ezine’ (periodic publication distributed by email or posted on a website).  

  • Cellular telephones in cars become widespread in the USA.

  • CD-ROMs arrive in computers.

  • Pay-per-view channels open for business in the USA. Twenty per cent of US households have VCRs/

  • AOL – American online is founded.

  • becomes the first registered domain and is quickly followed by,, and others.

  • Microsoft Windows 1.0 launched.

  • Total computers in use in the USA exceed 30 million. 

  • The first debit card in the UK is launched.

  • The first internet worm (a self replicating computer program) is detected.

  • Microsoft introduces its flagship office suite, Microsoft Office.

  • The possibility of the World Wide Web is described by Tim Berners-Lee.

  • The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) is launched.

  • Microsoft introduces Windows 3.0 operating system.   

  • The first online website appears.

  • The European Organization for Nuclear Research announces that the World Wide Web will be free to anyone.

  • CNN dominates news coverage worldwide during the Gulf War.

  • Seventy five per cent US homes reported to own VCRs; 6 per cent have cable television.

  • The first webcam is pointed at the Trojan room coffee pot in the computer science department of Cambridge University.

  • The Dycam Model 1 B&W digicam is the world’s first completely digital consumer camera.

  • US cable television revenue reaches US$ 22 billion. TCI chairman John Malone predicts ‘500 channel universe’.

  • First short message service (SMS) to a mobile phone.